Smoke Detectors Work

How Do Smoke Detectors Work

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Fire reveals a new aspect of human civilization. And it also courses for humans. Especially home, office, industries when it is out of control. Before getting out of control if we can control it, we can reduce the damages. For this, there are many technologies that can alert when set fire or initial stage and also can prevent it. The materials which are used in our home, office, or industries for various purposes most of them can easily get burnt.

Generally, smoke is the first step of set fire. So if we can detect the smoke properly then it is most easy to prevent fire. There are two types of smoke detectors “Ionization Detector” and “Photoelectric Detector”.

Now we are going to know how to do smoke detectors work, which is described below

Ionization Detector

Ionization Detector consists of two plates that are electrically charged and it has a radioactive source. These electrical plates are used for ionizing the air between them. The radioactive generate particles and throw them into the air. These particles clash with air molecules and separate their electron. As a result, molecules lose their electron. For this, they become positive and the same number of molecules receive these electrons and they become negative. Both positive and negative molecules are equal.

The positive ions go to the electrical plate which is electrically negative and the negative ions go to another plate which electrically positive. At this moment, the two electrical plates are getting connected.

But when smoke enters between the two electrical plates then the electricity flow decrease. Then the monitoring sensor creates an alarm. Keep reading Why a Building Survey is Important

Photoelectric Detector

This type of detector depends on a special light beam and sensor. There are two types of photoelectric smoke detectors.

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Light Scatting

Light Scatting

This type of light scatting has one light beam (LED) and a sensor. There was a block between the light beam and sensor. So in the normal stage, the light beam cannot reach the sensor. But when smoke enters the device. And the light beam is reflected by smoke. Some reflected light will go to the sensor. Then sensor creates an alarm

Light Obscuration

Light Obscuration

This system has also two main elements light beam and sensor. But there is no any kind of block. Here light beam is indicated to the sensor and it continuously lighting on the sensor. If the smoke enters between them then the light beam can not reach the sensor properly. Smoke blocks the light beam. As a result, the sensor creates the alarm.

Ionization and Photoelectric

Generally, Ionization is most effective for flaming fires and Photoelectric is for Smoldering Fires. Both have some limitations. But when both work jointly then the limitation will be reduced. There are many devices where the two technologies are combined into one device. So to detect smoke more properly then you can use it. It will be more productive.

Limitations of Smoke Detector

Above we describe how do smoke detectors work. Smoke detection is a good choice to alarm when the fire is developing in a room, level, or building. But it can not alarm when the fire is developing in another room especially when it is a closed-door room. For this, the owner needs to install a smoke detector in every room and level of a building. Sometimes set fire quickly less smoke. At that time smoke detection accuracy is low. Also, a smoke detector can not prevent the fire. It can only create an alarm which not a perfect solution. Because to extinguish the fire we need another helping hand or device. Fire can be developed when nobody in the room, office, or building. That time smoke detector is nothing.

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